When someone has Alzheimer’s disease, or any other form of dementia, communication can become more difficult. Their understanding of what you are saying and their ability to make you understand their world can be highly variable, and each person will react to different stimuli in different ways. This means we have to be sensitive to the way we present ourselves and how we give information when we talk with someone with Alzheimer’s or other forms of dementia.
For the most effective way to talk and communicate with someone who has Alzheimer’s, it is important to remember a few simple rules
- You can change your communication style; don’t expect to change theirs!
- Body language, communication, and Alzheimer’s
Your facial expression, your body language, the tone of your voice become extra important when talking and communicating to someone with neurological problems. If a person with dementia feels threatened, undermined or confused by your communication with them, they may react negatively to your interventions. i.e. Conversation or information can increase agitation, undermine their confidence, increase their feelings of isolation.
- Environmental awareness aids communication
Is the lighting sufficient to aid communication. In conversation, we usually look at the face and body of the person talking to us. It helps us to understand content and intent. Make sure you have some light on your face.
- Identify yourself and address the person by name
This helps someone with Alzheimer’s to orientate. Remember, as the disease advances, they may forget names and even faces of loved ones or think you are someone else.
- Does the person with dementia have hearing or sight difficulties?
Make allowances for visual and hearing deficits. Look into getting a medical evaluation and aids to assist communication.
- Make sure you have the person’s attention
Try to get eye contact, if possible and is not threatening to them.
- Speak slowly, calmly and distinctly
For effective communication you need to balance distinctive speech without treating the person with dementia as a child, without shouting or becoming angry with them if they do not understand. Shouting also affects the tone of your voice and makes understanding more difficult. Do not get angry even if you become frustrated. We will all have seen people talking too loudly at people with dementia, it’s not nice and it really does not help their self respect and confidence.
- Don’t argue or debate
Remember, you are no longer dealing with the same person with the same reasoning ability. Recognize their reality.
- Use simple and direct statements and information
- Use words the person can understand.
- Talk in very concrete terms: exact time, specific names, etc
- Use names of people and reduce use of pronouns: less he, she, them, etc
- Do not give more than one instruction at a time.
- Do not press for an answer if that worries or confuses them.
- Ask questions that require a “yes” or “no” response if that aids conversation and understanding
- If you do not understand the content of their conversation
If you do not understand what they have said, you can ask them to repeat it. Sometimes conversing with someone with Alzheimer’s is not necessarily about understanding, it is about showing care, concern, inclusion and love towards them.
- Correcting wrong information
It is unnecessary to correct the validity of the person’s statements if it includes wrong information. Constant corrections can
- Give visual cues and write things down for them.
Keep a notebook and write things down.
- Minimize distracting noise
Turn off the television or radio. Help the person focus. Ask them to turn off or reduce volume of the television if on the phone.
- If your conversation has not been successful, try again later
“Choose your battles” of how you communicate, depending on how important the communication is.